Becoming a Canine Good Citizen
Started in 1989, the AKC's Canine Good Citizen (CGC) Program is a certification program designed to reward dogs who have good manners at home and in the community. It is a two-part program that stresses responsible pet ownership for owners and basic good manners for dogs. All dogs who pass the 10-step CGC test may receive a certificate from the American Kennel Club.

Darcy says, "Mmm, mmm good!"In demonstrating social skills that will foster good citizenship and manners in public settings, a dog needs to be able to respond to the cues of heel, sit, down, and stay. Of course, there are many other ideal behaviors as well such as come, leave it, look, watch me, drop or give, and take. Training your dog to understand these cues stimulates his or her intelligence and strengthens the bond and relationship with your dog.

Many dog owners choose Canine Good Citizen training as the first step in training their dogs. The Canine Good Citizen Program lays the foundation for other AKC activities such as obedience, agility, tracking, and performance events. As you work with your dog to teach the CGC skills, you'll discover the many benefits and joys of training your dog. Training will enhance the bond between you and your dog. Dogs who have a solid obedience education are a joy to live with-they respond well to household routines, have good manners in the presence of people and other dogs, and they fully enjoy the company of the owner who took the time to provide training, intellectual stimulation, and a high quality life.

The CGC Program welcomes both purebred and mixed-breed dogs and there is no age limit. Truly, it is never too late to teach an old dog new tricks, as they say. There is NO AGE LIMIT for dogs taking the CGC Test. The test is non-competitive. This test of your dog’s basic manners and learning skills is not a competition and as such, does not require that you and your dog perform with precision. Also, that means you are allowed to talk to your dog throughout the test as the testing environment should be a relaxed one. You are not permitted to use food during testing as the examiner wanted to determine if you can control your dog's behavior without artificial incentives. However, you should be giving praise, smiles, hugs and pats throughout.

Before taking the Canine Good Citizen test, the owner must present a current rabies certificate and any other required inoculation certificates and licenses. The owner also needs to sign the Responsible Dog Owners Pledge. Responsible dog ownership is a key part of the CGC concept and by signing the pledge, owners agree to take care of their dog's health needs, safety, exercise, training and quality of life. Owners also agree to show responsibility by doing things such as cleaning up after their dogs in public places and never letting dogs infringe on the rights of others. After signing the Responsible Dog Owners Pledge, the CGC test can begin.

EquipmentAll tests must be performed on leash. Dogs should wear well-fitting buckle or slip collars made of leather, fabric, or chain. Special training collars such as pinch collars, head halters, etc. are not permitted in the CGC test. We recognize that special training collars may be very useful tools for beginning dog trainers, however, we feel that dogs are ready to take the CGC test at the point at which they are transitioned to regular collars. The evaluator supplies a 20-foot lead for the test. The owner/handler should bring the dog's brush or comb to the test.

CaesarEncouragementOwners/handlers should give praise, smiles, hugs and encouragement throughout the test. The owner may pet the dog between exercises. Food and treats are not permitted during testing, nor is the use of toys, squeaky toys, etc. to get the dog to do something. We recognize that food and toys may provide valuable reinforcement or encouragement during the training process but these items should not be used during the test. In effect, the examiner wants to determine if you can control your dog's behavior without artificial incentives.

Failures & DismissalsAny dog that eliminates during testing must be marked failed. The only exception to this rule is that elimination is allowable in test Item 10, but only when test Item 10 is held outdoors. Also, any dog that growls, snaps, bites, attacks, or attempts to attack a person or another dog is not a good citizen and must be dismissed from the test.

Dogs must demonstrate confidence and control by completing the following 10 Canine Good Citizen Test steps. Explore each to learn the requirements as well as how to train for meeting success. (Click here for a short pictorial representation of the 10 tasks below.) up












TEST 1: Accepting a Friendly Stranger
This test demonstrates that the dog will allow a friendly stranger to approach it and speak to the handler in a natural, everyday situation. The evaluator walks up to the dog and handler and greets the handler in a friendly manner, ignoring the dog. The evaluator and handler shake hands and exchange pleasantries. The dog must show no sign of resentment or shyness, and must not break position or try to go to the evaluator.

HOW TO TRAIN FOR TEST #1 (Copyright Delta Society and Denver Pet Partners)

Your dog needs to be shown how to behave when you meet friends on the street or welcome them into your home. No one enjoys a lunging, jumping dog, and some people are afraid of such an animal.

Initially work with one adult 'helper'. Have your dog on leash sitting next to you and have the 'helper' approach silently. If the dog remains sitting, he/she immediately gets a great treat (you or the 'helper' can deliver the treat). If the dog jumps up, or even gets up, the 'helper' keeps walking past. Be sure to keep the leash loose so the dog has the opportunity to make a choice.

The theory is that dogs love greetings and they love treats. If we get the behavior we want the dog gets the good stuff too. If the dog chooses a "bad" behavior, all possibility for social exchange (and treats) is removed!

We have started with the easiest situation possible; The dog is sitting (the 'default' position) and the person approaches silently. Once the dog understands what is expected, raise your expectations a little. The person approaching says a calm (flat tone) greeting "Hi, how are you". Once the dog has had a few successes begin to make the verbal greeting more excited, "HI, HOW ARE YOU?" . When that's successful make the greeting as wild and excited as possible.

Remember, with each successful greeting the dog gets a great treat and with every failed response nothing happens at all, the greeter just clams up and keeps on walking!  

Sometimes you may see the dog really work to 'do the right thing' ( he/she almost jumps up but shows restraint at the last instant). This is a JACKPOT moment (a handful of treats - given to the dog one at a time), it's a big reward for extra effort.

Arrange numerous social encounters by inviting friends to your home or by taking walks in your neighborhood. Keep your leash handy when you are home so you can snap it on your dog as soon as the doorbell rings. Before your dog shows excitement at someone’s approach, have him sit and stay as you pause to shake hands. (NOTE: Also see training for Test 6.) The “stay” helps to keep excitable dogs under control. Praise your dog when he obeys.

Now it's time to practice with the dog in motion, since this is even harder. 

Approach each other (silently) and stop at a comfortable conversational distance. Ask the dog to "sit" the first few times as you stop. Use the same criteria as explained above. When that's successful do not cue the sit, expect the dog to sit automatically. Remember, treats for a successful response and nothing for a goof!

Raise your expectations as the dog's skills improve. Approach each other with a calm greeting, more excited greeting, and finally with wild greetings.

Once the dog has learned how to approach one person we must teach him to generalize the behavior to all people. Start the process over with a new person. It will go much faster with the second person. When the dog is always successful start over with a third person. You will know your dog has generalized the learning when you can approach anybody and your dog chooses to sit automatically every time.

It may take many repetitions for your dog to realize that social encounters at home and in public must be met in a civilized way. If you are consistent in showing your dog how you expect it to behave when you meet friends and strangers AND reward the behavior you want, he will soon respond with poise.

This process will take time but the results are well worth it!  It's really impressive to people when your dog automatically sits in greeting situations and it makes it a lot easier and more fun for you too!

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TEST 2: Sitting Politely for Petting
This test demonstrates that the dog will allow a friendly stranger to touch it while it is out with its handler. With the dog sitting at the handler's side, to begin the exercise, the evaluator pets the dog on the head and body. The handler may talk to his or her dog throughout the exercise. The dog may stand in place as it is petted. The dog must not show shyness or resentment.

HOW TO TRAIN FOR TEST #2 (Copyright Delta Society and Denver Pet Partners)

In public, strangers will want to meet your budding Canine Good Citizen. You have already accomplished a large part of this exercise by teaching you dog to pay attention to you and ignore pedestrians in public and to react calmly to visitors at home.

Getting your dog accustomed to being touched all over his body will be helpful for this exercise. For five minutes every day, pet and massage your dog’s face, ears, down his spine and legs while giving him treats. Handling exercises will be more successful if you take advantage of quiet times when your dog is already relaxed. Continue massaging down his back and gently give a tug to his fur and tail, all the while giving him treats. This will make touching a positive experience.

When your dog is comfortable with handling, have him remain sitting while you and family members approach and pet him. Then practice with people the dog knows and likes. Start with simple touching and reward your dog. Approach from all angles, (side, back, front). Gradually escalate to more vigorous petting without getting the dog overly excited. Reward successful responses. If he becomes too excited, (jumping, barking, or wiggling), remove your attention and wait for calmness. Reward calm behavior.

As soon as your dog learns to remain calm while being petted by those it knows, you can allow strangers to do the same. Remember that many individuals, especially children, do not know how to approach animals and may need some guidance.

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TEST 3: Appearance and Grooming
This practical test demonstrates that the dog will welcome being groomed and examined and will permit someone, such as a veterinarian, groomer or friend of the owner, to do so. It also demonstrates the owner's care, concern and sense of responsibility. The evaluator inspects the dog to determine if it is clean and groomed. The dog must appear to be in healthy condition (i.e., proper weight, clean, healthy and alert). The handler should supply the comb or brush commonly used on the dog. The evaluator then softly combs or brushes the dog, and in a natural manner, lightly examines the ears and gently picks up each front foot. It is not necessary for the dog to hold a specific position during the examination, and the handler may talk to the dog, praise it and give encouragement throughout.

HOW TO TRAIN FOR TEST #3 (Copyright Delta Society and Denver Pet Partners)

Gentle combing and brushing are a natural extension of petting and stroking. Your dog should receive gradual, positive conditioning to being groomed and examined from puppyhood on. Introduce your dog to brushing sessions by allowing the dog to sniff the brush and then give 2-3 strokes down his back, give him a special treat and end the session. Handle his front paws and other parts of his body, (head, ears, lips) in a similar way. Gradually increase the amount of time that you spend touching your dog all over. Begin right away if you acquire an adult dog. If your dog fears this type of handling or becomes uncertain when its ears or feet are touched, spend time allowing him to associate grooming and human touch with a happy experience (such as vocal praise or training treats) when he gives the slightest positive response. Pleasant daily handling and grooming will help you recognize physical problems early on, and your dog will learn that being examined and groomed are a welcome part of everyday life. Once your dog is comfortable being groomed and examined by you, ask someone else to do the same using the “sit,” “down” or “stand” cue, if you wish. Your dog will then be ready for visits to pet-care professionals and for Canine Good Citizen Tests 1-3.

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TEST 4: Out for a Walk (Walking on a Loose Lead)
This test demonstrates that the handler is in control of the dog. The dog may be on either side of the handler. The dog's position should leave no doubt that the dog is attentive to the handler and is responding to the handler's movements and changes of direction. The dog need not be perfectly aligned with the handler and need not sit when the handler stops. The evaluator may use a pre-plotted course or may direct the handler/dog team by issuing instructions or commands. In either case, there should be a right turn, left turn, and an about turn with at least one stop in between and another at the end. The handler may talk to the dog along the way, praise the dog, or give commands in a normal tone of voice. The handler may sit the dog at the halts if desired.

HOW TO TRAIN FOR TEST #4 (Copyright Delta Society and Denver Pet Partners)

As with all training exercises you will want to start in an area with the least distractions, build on success and gradually take your dog out where there are people and other dogs.

You can begin teaching this exercise by showing your dog a treat to entice it to move with you as you begin to walk. Treats motivate the dog to stay in the proper place, and praise reinforces him. Eventually, your dog will develop a habit of moving happily in the desired position, and the treats can gradually be eliminated. Always continue to use praise.

Here are three methods for training the loose leash walk. You can practice any or all. For all of them the starting positions are the same. Neatly fold the leash accordion-style into your right hand, with the part going to the dog coming out the bottom of your hand, and hold your hand against your belt buckle. Deliver treats with left hand. Position the dog on your left side in a sit position.

“Be a Tree”
Begin walking in a straight line. Praise and reward every few steps as your dog is walking without pulling. If your dog begins to pull ahead, just stop and wait, (Be a Tree). When your dog sits and/or looks at you, praise and treat. He should now be back near your leg, have him sit on your left side and take 2-3 steps. Repeat “Be a Tree” as often as needed. It may take several repetitions. Your dog will learn when the leash tightens, forward progress stops. Do not take any steps forward as long as the leash is tight. Every time your dog pulls and is successful he is learning that pulling works.

“Penalty Yards”
Another good way to practice is when your dog pulls, stop and take a few steps backwards. You can pat your leg and encourage him to come to your left side, praise and reward. Put him in a sit and take a few more steps forward. Remember to praise and reward when he is walking on a loose leash. Repeat “Penalty Yards” as needed.

“Turn and Go”
When your dog pulls, stop, make a right about turn and walk a few steps in the opposite direction. When your dog is near your left side, and is moving without pulling, praise and treat. You should never jerk on the leash. You do not have to guide, steer or drag your dog on the leash. Whenever your dog chooses to stop paying attention to you and pulls the leash tight you should simply stop. The dog has caused the tight leash, not you. Wait for him to give attention to you, praise and reward and reposition him.

For dedicated pullers, this will require lots of practice, but after a few successful reinforcements, your dog will start to get the idea. You will begin to see him reposition himself as soon as the leash tightens or when you stop. As he begins to pay more attention to you, add right turns, left turns, about turns and sits at your side when you stop.

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TEST 5: Walking through a Crowd
This test demonstrates that the dog can move about politely in pedestrian traffic and is under control in public places. The dog and handler walk around and pass close to several people (at least three). The dog may show some interest in the strangers but should continue to walk with the handler, without evidence of over-exuberance, shyness or resentment. The handler may talk to the dog and encourage or praise the dog throughout the test. The dog should not jump on people in the crowd or strain on the leash.

HOW TO TRAIN FOR TEST #5 (Copyright Delta Society and Denver Pet Partners)

Because you have already practiced loose-leash walking in your neighborhood, your dog is probably used to encountering people. If however there is no one around, go to a grocery store, pet supermarket, downtown or to the local playground. With an excitable dog, try to work up to close encounters gradually until your dog is comfortable and controllable. For example, choose a quiet weekday evening for a walk in town before you choose a busy weekend.

For this exercise, you will want to have your dog in a “heel” position, rather than the more lenient “loose leash”. “Heel” is typically used when you need your dog to walk in a controlled fashion by your side (in crowds, when crossing streets, or when passing people on the path who may be afraid of dogs). Practice heeling in an area with no distractions. Use a handful of food lures and position your dog at your left side, his head should be lined up with your left leg.

Begin by placing your dog in a sit on your left. Hold the lure in your left hand two inches above your dog’s nose level and parallel to your left leg. Your hand should be as close to your left leg as possible. Say your dog’s name, “heel” and step out with your left foot, use the lure to keep him in heel position. Take no more than a few steps, praise and reward frequently, giving out the treats one at a time. His eyes should be on you at all times. When you stop, have him sit. Eventually, he will learn to sit automatically when you stop. Repeat taking just a few steps at a time. If he breaks heel position, you are probably taking too many steps or there may be too many distractions.

As your dog becomes more proficient, you can begin to fade the food and bring your hand in front of you at your waist. This may take several weeks of practice. Go back to using food if you see regression.

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TEST 6: Sit and Down on Command and Staying in Place
This test demonstrates that the dog has training, will respond to the handler's commands to sit and down and will remain in the place commanded by the handler (sit or down position, whichever the handler prefers). The dog must do sit AND down on command, then the owner chooses the position for leaving the dog in the stay. Prior to this test, the dog's leash is replaced with a line 20 feet long. The handler may take a reasonable amount of time and use more than one command to get the dog to sit and then down. The evaluator must determine if the dog has responded to the handler's commands. The handler may not force the dog into position but may touch the dog to offer gentle guidance. When instructed by the evaluator, the handler tells the dog to stay and walks forward the length of the line, turns and returns to the dog at a natural pace. The dog must remain in the place in which it was left (it may change position) until the evaluator instructs the handler to release the dog. The dog may be released from the front or the side.

HOW TO TRAIN FOR TEST #6 (Copyright Delta Society and Denver Pet Partners)

Sit and Down
If you are like most dog owners, you have already taught your dog to sit on command. Maybe you have also taught your dog to down and, if so, you can skip this part and go right to the section on staying in place.

To teach your dog to sit, hold a piece of food in front of his nose, and lift the treat up over his nose and forehead. Keep the treat very close to your dog’s body as you say “sit.” As your dog looks up at the reward, his rear will settle into a sit. Praise and reward instantly.

To teach the down, put the food in front of your sitting dog’s nose and slowly lower it to the ground slightly ahead of its feet while saying “down.” As your dog reaches down for the reward, it will lower the front end of its body. As soon as his chest is on the floor praise your dog and instantly give it the treat.

Practice these exercises several times in a row over a period of several days. Gradually bring in distractions until your dog responds reliably to either cue in public places.

Staying in Place
With your dog at your side, ask him to sit or down. Once he is in position, you are ready to teach a “stay” cue.

Lower your hand, palm towards the dog’s face, as a signal to stay as you say the word stay. Then stand right in front of your dog’s nose. Remain there for a few seconds. If he starts to break position, use “uh,oh” or “oops” and reposition him. When your dog remains in place, go back to his side, praise, reward and release him. Practice this several times over a period of several days.

As soon as your dog understands what stay means, start adding time (about 10 seconds per day), then bring in distractions. Only when your dog is reliable under distractions for a period of 1-2 minutes on a sit and 2-3 minutes on a down should you gradually begin to move farther away from your dog. Move in closer and reduce the time if you experience difficulty, and be sure to practice the cues on-leash. Before you know it, you will wonder how you and your dog ever managed to live together without the “sit,” and “down” and “stay” behavior cues.

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TEST 7: Coming when Called
This test demonstrates that the dog will come when called by the handler. The handler will walk 10 feet from the dog, turn to face the dog, and call the dog. The handler may use encouragement to get the dog to come. Handlers may choose to tell dogs to "stay" or "wait" or they may simply walk away, giving no instructions to the dog.

HOW TO TRAIN FOR TEST #7 (Copyright Delta Society and Denver Pet Partners)

To begin teaching your dog to come, put your dog on leash. Allow him to go to the end of the leash and call his name enthusiastically. Take a few quick steps backwards, patting your leg and saying “come”. When he comes when called, give him lots of praise and treats. Bring the treat in close to your body, so that he will come close to you. When he reaches you, prolong your reward and praise so your dog will want to stay with you. Also at this point, it is a good idea to gently take hold of his collar with one hand and treat with the other hand. Then release him.

Increase the distance gradually using a long line or retractable leash. Avoid using the leash to drag him to you. Practice calling your dog to you at least 5 times a day. This cue should always be associated with good things. Don’t call your dog to you to do something unpleasant (scolding, nail clipping, end of play) or he will not want to come next time.

If your dog does not come when called, go get him and go back to practicing the “come” on leash. You should not let your dog off leash until you have a reliable recall on leash, with distractions, in many different locations.

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TEST 8: Reaction to Another Dog
This test demonstrates that the dog can behave politely around other dogs. Two handlers and their dogs approach each other from a distance of about 20 feet, stop, shake hands and exchange pleasantries, and continue on for about 10 feet. The dogs should show no more than casual interest in each other. Neither dog should go to the other dog or its handler.

HOW TO TRAIN FOR TEST #8 (Copyright Delta Society and Denver Pet Partners)

If you are working alone and there are few people in your neighborhood who walk their dogs, you will need to go where dogs are, such as a boarding kennel, grooming salon, veterinarian's office or pet supermarket. These places offer opportunities to practice good canine-to-canine manners and are also locations where you need your dog and the other dog to be under control.

If you have already accomplished the stay exercise with distractions, you can consider this exercise as just one more example of a distraction. Start from a safe distance, moving as far away as need be so that both dogs in the encounter feel secure. When your dog becomes confident, you can move closer to approaching dogs and handlers. To begin, every time you see a dog and handler walking, ask your dog to “stay” in either a sit or down position as they pass by. Use encouragement and “jolly talk” and lots of praise and rewards. Be aware of the leash in your hands. Do not tighten up on it in anticipation of what you fear might happen. This will send a clear message to your dog that something “scary” is about to happen.

Dogs performing the Canine Good Citizen Test have had an introduction to this exercise, but be alert when practicing in real life. Unfortunately, the dog you are approaching may not be trained and may have poor manners. In fact, dog owners may comment on your dog’s good manners. You and your dog will be helping to educate the public, and you may even find other dogs and handlers to train with!

Practice this exercise until your dog reacts reliably to canine encounters. It should show no more that mild interest in the approaching dog and handler so you can stop, shake hands and go your own way.

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TEST 9: Reaction to Distraction
This test demonstrates that the dog is confident at all times when faced with common distracting situations. The evaluator will select and present two distractions. Examples of distractions include dropping a chair, rolling a crate dolly past the dog, having a jogger run in front of the dog, or dropping a crutch or cane. The dog may express natural interest and curiosity and/or may appear slightly startled but should not panic, try to run away, show aggressiveness, or bark. The handler may talk to the dog and encourage or praise it throughout the exercise.

HOW TO TRAIN FOR TEST #9 (Copyright Delta Society and Denver Pet Partners)

Life is full of surprises and your dog should react calmly to most of them. Through exposure to everyday situations, your dog has probably learned to ignore the distractions used in this test. But if it rarely sees a bicycle or has taken to barking and fence-running when he sees a jogger, you may be in for an embarrassing surprise when you are with your dog in public.

If you dog shows fear of unusual objects, sounds or movements, you should help it by briefly exposing it to these things in a non-threatening environment, preferably at a comfortable distance. Praise, treats, toys and playful interaction may eventually take his mind off fear and help him associate what was once frightening with positive experiences.

As your dog becomes more confident, you can gradually bring the distractions closer. For example, a heavy book dropped right behind a dog’s back may cause an inexperienced or sound-sensitive dog to panic; but a heavy book dropped 60 feet in front of the same dog may not even be noticed. Gradually moving the book closer, to the side of the dog and, finally, behind his back will desensitize the dog in a positive way.

If your dog shows aggressive behavior, the same technique may be applied by exposing the dog gradually, and at a distance, to the things that trigger his reaction. Reward calm behavior.

CAUTION: AVOID CODDLING! As tempting as it may be, do not allow yourself to coddle and comfort your dog. You will be rewarding and reinforcing his timid, fearful behavior, not giving him confidence, like you might think. If you act concerned, he will be even more convinced that there is something to be afraid of. You will do better to act matter-of-fact, yawn as if your bored, or jolly him up, and let him know that there’s nothing wrong. Try to keep him focused on a task that requires active thought. Eye contact and heeling (or any other behavior cues) are useful in many cases because the dog stays focused on you.

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TEST 10: Supervised Separation
This test demonstrates that a dog can be left with a trusted person, if necessary, and will maintain training and good manners. Evaluators are encouraged to say something like, "Would you like me to watch your dog?" and then take hold of the dog's leash. The owner will go out of sight for three minutes. The dog does not have to stay in position but should not continually bark, whine, or pace unnecessarily, or show anything stronger than mild agitation or nervousness. Evaluators may talk to the dog but should not engage in excessive talking, petting, or management attempts (e.g., "There, there, it's alright").

HOW TO TRAIN FOR TEST #10 (Copyright Delta Society and Denver Pet Partners)

As you and your dog work together, you will discover a bond developing that is based on trust. Not only will you begin to trust your dog’s manners, but he will trust you and your judgment, even if the dog is occasionally left in a strange place, such as a friend’s home, a grooming shop or a boarding kennel.

Prepare your dog by going out of sight for a few seconds as you practice distance on your dog’s “stay” behavior. You can walk into another room or around the corner. If you use a long line and hold on to it, you will know if your dog moves, even if you cannot see him. Or you can position yourself opposite a mirror, so you can see him but he doesn’t see you. Use the correction “oops” or “uh, oh” if he breaks position or vocalizes, and repeat the exercise making it easier for him to succeed (shorter time out of sight). If you “disappear” for only a few seconds and never go any great distance, your dog will learn that you are never far away, even when he cannot see you.

As soon as your dog feels comfortable when you go out of sight, you can stop using the “stay” cue. You might want to introduce a new cue such as “wait here” or “I’ll be back.” That will help your dog understand that he can remain calm and not try to run away or vocalize, but need not remain in a specific position.

Gradually increase the time you are out of sight, and add social distractions until you have worked up to three minutes. When possible, have a helper work with you on this exercise so that your dog learns to be briefly separated from you and to stay with a person you trust.

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